Mark Spigelman MB BS, FRCS, B.Sc.



            mark spigelman


Degrees

MB BS                                              Sydney University 1965.

FRCS                                                Royal College of Surgeons London 1971.

B.Sc. (Arch) Hons (upper 2nd)    Institute of Archaeology UCL London 1994. 


Experience

1974-1991 Clinical lecturer and final year examiner at Sydney University Medical: School in Surgery.

1982-1992 Roster of experts on the Commonwealth Health Secretariat.

1984-1990 Director NSW Hospital Planning Authority.

1986-1990 Member of the Medical Board of NSW.

1993-1996 Human remains specialist at Tel Beit Shean Hebrew University Institute of Archaeology Jerusalem Israel.

1995-1995 Anthropologist Karkur excavation Beer Sheva University Israel.

1996-1996 Human remains specialist Saqquara excavation Egypt with the Macquarie University Sydney Australia.

1997-1997 Anthropologist with the Caesarea Combined Expedition. Caesarea, Israel with the University of Maryland.

1997-1998 Human remains specialist: Tel Rehov Hebrew University Institute of Archaeology Jerusalem Israel.

1998-1998 Human remains specialist Luxor and Helwan excavation Egypt with the Macquarie University Sydney Australia.

2002-2002 Chairman of the 6th International aDNA Conference Jerusalem July 2002.

2004-2004

- Session Chair and Scientific committee member 5th International Congress of mummy studies. Turin Italy.

- Session Chair and Scientific committee member. 7th International aDNA Conference. Brisbane Australia.


2005-2005 July Organiser and Session chair Symposioum ancient bio-molecules. 1st Paleopathology Conference in S America Inst Oswaldo-Cruz Rio de Jinero Brazil.

2006-2006 Sir Zelman Cowan Travelling Fellowship

 

CURRICULUM VITAE

Working in the Israel/UK as a human remains specialist/ anthropologist, researching the history and development of microbial diseases utilizing microbiological techniques on Ancient human remains. Previously a consulting surgeon for 25 years in Sydney Australia.

Since becoming an Archaeologist/Anthropologist I have concentrated on developing the study of Paleomicrobiology and developing relationship between microbial diseases of the past and the diseases of today. I have developed extensive techniques for minimally destructive sampling of human remains particularly endoscopic sampling of mummies-which I have now done on over 500 occasions. I have lectured on the subject world-wide and our work has featured in many documentaries e.g. National Geographic, Discovery Channel, ABC as well as in many magazine and newspapers. Currently we have joint project with over 20 museums and universities worldwide. Whilst concentrating currently on tuberculosis and leprosy we have also had success in finding Leischmania, Malaria and Schitasoma in ancient tissues other bio-molecules such as proteins and lipids are also being investigated. We are currently also looking at histological examination of mummy specimens as well as the standard assessment of ancient material for paleopathological lesions.

Visiting Surgeon: Royal Prince Alfred, Sydney Homeopathic, Marrickville District Hospital and The Waverley War Memorial Hospitals.


Publications

Edited books

1) Greenblatt C. and Spigelman M. (associate eds.). 2003. Emerging pathogens: archaeology, ecology and evolution of infectious disease. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


Book chapters


1) Spigelman M. Fricker C. and Fricker E. 1995. Extracting DNA from Lindow Man's gut content. Modern technology looking for answers from ancient tissues. In: C. Turner and R.G. Scaife (eds.) Bog Bodies New Discoveries and New Perspectives. British Museum Press: 59-61.

2) Spigelman M. and Greenblatt C. 1998. A guide to digging for pathogens. In: C.L. Greenblatt (ed.) Digging for pathogens: ancient emerging diseases - their evolutionary, anthropological and archaeological context. Balaban Publishers, Rehovot, Israel: 345-61.

3) Spigelman M. and Donoghue H.D. 2003. Paleobacteriology with special reference to pathogenic mycobacteria. In: C. Greenblatt and M. Spigelman (eds.) Emerging pathogens: archaeology, ecology and evolution of infectious disease. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 175-188.

4) Greenblatt C. & Spigelman M. Towards a “medical archaeology”. American Society of Historical Archaeology (in press).

5) Donoghue H.D., Greenblatt C. and Spigelman M. Molecular microbiology in Irtu Senu, Lord Granville's Egyptian mummy. In: J. Taylor and B. Harer (eds.) British Museum press (in press).

6) Hershkovitz I. and Spigelman M. Bones, teeth and aDNA unravel major issues in Levantine Bio-history. In M. Faerman (ed.) Patricia Smith: her life (in press).

Refereed Papers

1993
Spigelman, M and Lemma, E. 1993: The use of the polymerase chain reaction to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in ancient skeletons. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology; 3; 137-143.

1994
Rafi, A., Spigelman, M., Stanford, J., Donoghue, H., Lemma, E. and Zias J. 1994:DNA extraction and amplification using PCR of M leprae from a bone from 600 A.D. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology: 4 183. 1-4.

1996
Spigelman, M. 1996. The archaeologist and ancient bio-molecules: Field sampling strategies to enhance recovery. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology. 7: 69-74.

1997
Fricker, C., Spigelman, M. and Fricker, E. 1997. The detection of Escherichia coli DNA in the ancient remains of Lindow Man using the polymerase chain reaction. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 24: 351-4.

Spigelman, M.1997. Circumcision in ancient Egypt Ritual or Medical necessity. Bulletin of the Australian Center for Egyptology. 8: 90-100.

1998
Spigelman, M. and Bentley P.1998. Bilateral congenital hip Dislocation: Skeletal changes in a Skeleton from the 18th Dynasty Saqqara Egypt. Paleopathology Newsletter.102: 6-12.

Donoghue HD. Spigelman M, Zias J, Gernaey-Child AM, Minnikin DE. 1998 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA in calcified pleura from remains 1400 years old. Letters of Applied Microbiology. 27(5): 265-9.

1999
Spigelman M and Bentley P. 1999. Cancer in Ancient Egypt. Journal of Paleopathology. 9: (2) 107-14.

2000
Ubelaker D H., Jones E B., Donoghue H D. and Spigelman M. 2000 Skeletal and Molecular Evidence for Tuberculosis in a Forensic Case. Anthropologie. XXXVIII/2: 193-200.

Barnes, I. Holton, J. Dino Vaira, Mark Spigelman and Mark Thomas.2000. An assessment of the long-term preservation of the DNA of bacterial pathogens in ethanol-preserved archival material. Journal of Pathology. 192:554-9.

2001
Donoghue H, Holton J and Spigelman M. 2001. PCR primers that can detect low levels of Mycobacterium leprae DNA. Journal of Microbiology. 50,177-82.

Spigelman M. and Donoghue H. 2001. Unusual Pathological Condition in the lower extremities of a skeleton from ancient Israel. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 114(1): 92-3.

Spigelman, M. Barnes, I. Holton, J. Vaira, D and Thomas. M. 2001. Long-term DNA survival in ethanol-preserved archival material. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.83: 283-4.

Rothschild B., Martin L., Lev G., Bercovier H., Greenblatt C. and Donoghue H.D, Khila G., Spigelman M. and Brittain D. 2001. Mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex DNA from an extinct bison dated 17,000 years before the present. 2001. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 1; 33 3): 305-311.

2002
Paléopathologique rachidienne de deux momies du XVIIIe. 2002 Pap, I., Kustár, Á., Bernert Zs., Szikossy, I., Donoghue, HD, Spigelman, M., Hershkovitz, I.,Kristóf L., Barta M Pálfi, Gy. - In: BÉRATO, J. et al. (éd.), Centre Archeologique du Var. 40.

2003
H. Fletcher, HD Donoghue, Taylor M, van der Zanden and Spigelman M. 2003. Molecular analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA from a family of 18th century Hungarians. Microbiology149 (1):143-151.

Spigelman M, Matheson, C, Lev, M, Greenblatt C. and Donoghue H D.2003. Confirmation of the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis- Complex specific DNA in three Archaeological Specimens. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 12: 393-401.

Donoghue H, H Fletcher, Spigelman M 2003. Widespread occurrence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA from 18th-19th century Hungarians. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 12: 144-52.

Douglas Ubelaker, Mark Spigelman Helen D Donoghue, Helen Fletcher, Carney D Matheson and Erica B. Jones. 2003. Evaluation of Evidence for Tuberculosis. In Human Remains from Voegtly Cemetery, Pittsburg Pennsylvania-Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology No 46 (Douglas Ubelaker and Erica B. Jones eds). Smithsonian Institution Press Washington D.C.

Greenblatt C, Spigelman M and Vernon K. . 2003. “The Impact of "Ancient Pathogen" Studies on the Practice of Public Health” Public Health Reviews. 31:2: 81-91.

2004
Helen D. Donoghue, Mark Spigelman, Charles L. Greenblatt, Galit Lev-Maor, Gila Kahila Bar-Gal, Carney Matheson, Kim Vernon, Andreas G. Nerlich, and Albert R. Zink Tuberculosis from prehistory to Robert Koch as revealed by ancient DNA Review. Lancet Infectious Diseases Sept 2004.

2005
Dr Helen Donoghue, Dr Antonia Marcsik, Dr Carney Matheson, Dr Kim Vernon, Dr Emilia Nuorala, Dr Joseph Molto, Dr Charles Greenblatt and Dr Mark Spigelman. , 2005. Co-infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae in human archaeological samples - a possible explanation for the historical decline of leprosy Proceedings of The Royal Society: Biological Sciences. Proceedings B Volume 272, Number 1561 February 22, 389–394.

M Spigelman 2005. MRSA Why treat the symptoms and not the disease? Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England 87: 6: 452 – 453.

2006
A death from childhood cancer and tuberculosis in 18th Century Hungary - what palaeopathology can tell us today Mark Spigelman 1 Ildicó Pap, and Helen D.Donoghue1- Leukemia. 2006 Apr;20 (4):740-2.

Technical Comment Pathogenic microbial ancient DNA: a problem or an opportunity? Proc Biol Sci. 273(1587): 641-2; discussion 643

Karin Sowada, Mark Spigelman, Carney Matheson. An interloper revealed DNA analysis and the indentification of an Egyptian mummy. Bulletin of the Australian Center for Egyptology (In Press).

Albert R. Zink, Mark Spigelman, Bettina Schraut, Charles L. Greenblatt, Andreas G. Nerlich , Helen D. Donoghue Leishmaniasis in ancient Egypt and Upper Nubia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12(10): 1616-7.


Conference Proceedings Books

1)Donoghue H, D., Uberlaker, DH. and Spigelman M. The use of Paleomicrobial techniques in a Current forensic case. 1999. In Tuberculosis Past and Present Palfi G, Dutour O Deak J and Hutas (eds). Golden Book publishers Hungary. 361-8.

2) M Spigelman and H. D. Donoghue. 1999. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in Archaeological Specimens. In Tuberculosis Past and Present Palfi G, Dutour O Deak J and Hutas (eds). Golden Book publishers Hungary. 361-8.

3) Pap, I., Jozsa L,. Bajzik, G,. Repa, I, Lakhani, S.R., Donoghue, H.D and Spigelman, M. 1999. 18-19th century tuberculosis in naturally mummified individuals (Vac Hungary) In Tuberculosis Past and Present Palfi G, Dutour O Deak J and Hutas (eds). Golden Book publishers Hungary. 419-28.

4) Spigelman M and Donoghue H. 2002. The study of ancient DNA answers a Paleopathological Question. In: The Past and Present of Leprosy: Archaeological, historical, palaeopathological and clinical approaches. Proceedings of the International Congress on the Evolution and Palaeoepidemiology of the Infectious Diseases 3 (ICEPID), University of Bradford, 26th-31st July 1999. Edited by Charlotte A. Roberts, Mary E. Lewis, K. British Archeological Reports, BAR International Series 1054, 293-5. Archaeopress, Oxford.

5) Spigelman M., Donoghue H, Gladykowska-Rzecycka J. and Marscik A.2002.Mycobacterium leprae in archaeological specimens. In: The Past and Present of Leprosy: Archaeological, historical, palaeopathological and clinical approaches. Proceedings of the International Congress on the Evolution and Palaeoepidemiology of the Infectious Diseases 3 (ICEPID), University of Bradford, 26th-31st July 1999. Edited by Charlotte A. Roberts, Mary E. Lewis, K. British Archeological Reports, BAR International Series 1054, 271-86 Archaeopress, Oxford.

6) Spigelman M, Fletcher H, Holton J, Pap I , Matheson C and Donoghue HD 2003. The Hungarian Mummy Project. In Mummies in a New Millenium. Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Mummy Studies, Nuuk, Greenland, September 4th to 10th, 2001. (Neils Lynnerup, Clais Andreasen, and Joel Berglund eds).

7) HD Donoghue, M. Spigelman, J. Zias , A.M. Gernaey-Child and DE Minnikin. 2004. Demonstration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA in calcified pleura from remains 1400 years old. In Horvat Karkur ‘llit Dr Pau Figueras (ed) Ben Gurion University of the Desert Press Beer-Sheva.

8) Spigelman M., Greenblatt C.L., Vernon K., Zylber M.I., Sheridan S.G., Van Gerven D.P., Shaheem Z., Hansraj F. and Donoghue H.D. 2005. Preliminary findings on the paleomicrobiological study of 400 naturally mummified human remains from Upper Nubia. In E. Rabino Massa (ed.) Proceedings of the V World Congress on Mummy Studies, Turin, Italy, September 2-5 2004. Journal of Biological Research (Naples) 80(1): 91-95.

9) Spigelman M. 2006. The human Remains of Qumran. In J. Gunneweg, C. Greenblatt and A. Adriaens (eds.) Bio – and Material Cultures at Qumran: Papers from a COST Action G8 working group meeting held in Jerusalem, Israel, 22-23 May 2005, pp. 25-28. Fraunhofer IRB Verlag, Stuttgart.

10) Zylber M.I., Spigelman M. and Greenblatt C. Specific and non-specific infestations of archaeological artefacts. In H.W. Witas (ed.) Ancient DNA in Physiology and Pathology. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Ancient DNA & Associated Biomolecules, Lodz, Poland, 16-19 October 2006. Medical University of Łódź (in press).


Conference Abstracts in Refereed Journals

1) G. Lev, H. Bercovier, D. Brittain and C. Greenblatt. 2001. Spoligotyping of ancient tubercle bacilli. 5th aDNA conference Manchester UK. Ancient. Biomolecules. 3: 306.

2) H.Fletcher, HD Donoghue, J. Holton, M. Thomas, I. Pap and M. Spigelman 2001. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA from 18th to 19th century Hungarians. 5th aDNA conference Manchester UK. Anc. Biomol. 3; 294.

3) HD Donoghue, H. Fletcher, J. Holton, M. Thomas, I. Pap, M. Spigelman. 2001. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex DNA In Middle Class Individuals 5th aDNA conference Manchester UK. Ancient Biomolecules 3:294

4) M.Spigelman. HD Donoghue, H. Fletcher, J. Holton, M. Thomas, I. Pap, M. Spigelman. 2001. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex DNA In Middle Class Individuals-introduction 5th aDNA conference Manchester UK. Ancient Biomolecules 3:294

5) C. Matheson, HD Donoghue, H. Fletcher, J. Holton, M. Thomas, I. Pap. M Spigelman. July 2000. Tuberculosis in Ancient Populations: A Linkage Study. 5th aDNA conference Manchester UK. Ancient Biomolecules 3 2001.

6) M Spigelman. H.A Fletcher, I. Pap. and H.D Donoghue. 2002. The Hungarian Mummies progress since DNA5 6th Int Conf aDNA Jerusalem Israel 21-25 July 2002. Conf Abstract. Ancient Biomolecules. 4(3); 156.

7) Donoghue, HD Marscik, A., Matheson, C., Vernon, K. and Spigelman M. 2002. Co-infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae in archaeological specimens. 6th Int Conf aDNA Jerusalem Israel 21-25 July 2002. Conf Abstract. Ancient Biomolecules 4(3): 128.

8) Lev-Maor, G., Blondiaux J., Spigelman M., Donoghue H., Rothschild, B. , Zias J., Kahila, G., Matheson C., Skuce, R. and Greenblatt, C.L 2002.Ancient Tuberculosis: Problematics of Diagnosis and Characterization 6th Int Conf aDNA Jerusalem Israel 21-25 July 2002. Conf Abstract. Ancient Biomolecules 4(3):142.

9) Mazar A. Vernon K, Matheson C, and Spigelman M. Ancient Sex Change and the Prince of Egypt.2002. 6th Int Conf aDNA Jerusalem Israel 21-25 July 2002 Conf Abstract. Ancient Biomolecules 4(3):147.

10) Shamir Orit, Zias Joe and Spigelman Mark. 2002. Textiles and Skeletons from Kasr al-Yahud near Jericho 6th Int Conf aDNA Jerusalem Israel 21-25 July 2002. Conf Abstract. Ancient Biomolecules 4(3):155.

11) Spigelman, M Matheson, C and Sowada, K 2002.An Interloper Revealed: DNA Analysis and the Identification of an Egyptian Mummy 6th Int Conf aDNA Jerusalem Israel 21-25 July 2002. Conf Abstract. Ancient Biomolecules 4(3):156-7.

12) Gibson, S., C. Greenblatt, M. Spigelman, A. Gorski, H. D. Donoghue, K. Vernon, and C. D. Matheson. 2002. The Shroud Cave - a unique case study linking a closed loculus, a shroud and ancient mycobacteria. Ancient Biomolecules 4:134.

13) M Spigelman Letter to the Editor re: "The limits of bimolecular Paleopathology: Ancient DNA cannot be used to study venereal syphilis"Journal of Archaelogical Science. (submitted)



Letters

1) D Brothwell and M Spigelman. 1993 Drugs in ancient populations. The Lancet; 341:1157.

2). Spigelman M.1994 Studying ancient DNA. British Medical Journal; 308: 1370.

3) Rafi, A., Spigelman, M., Stanford, J., Donoghue, H., Lemma E. and Zias J. 1994. Mycobacterium leprae from ancient bones detected by PCR. The Lancet; 343:1360-1.

4) Spigelman M. 1994 Ancient DNA, Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England; 76:351.

5) 6th International Conference on aDNA and Associated Biomolecules Report Summer of 2002. Society for Archaeological Science Bulletin.

6) Report on the 6th International Conference on aDNA and Associated Biomolecules. Dec2002. Paleopathology Newsletter. 120: 8-10.

7) Report on . Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Mummy Studies, Nuuk, Greenland, September 4th to 10th, 2001. Paleopathology Newsletter. Dec 2003. 124: 5-6.

8) Lets get Serious about MRSA British Medical Journal (online) 22nd July 2004.

Published Site Reports

1) Kanawati, N. and M. Abder-Raziq, with contributions by Horácková, L. McFarlane, A . Shafik, S. Spigelman, M. Strouhal, E. Thompson A and Victor, N. 2000. The Teti Cemetery at Saqqara. Volume VI: The Tomb of Nikauisesi, Warminster, Aris & Phillips Ltd, The Australian Centre for Egyptology:

2) J Zias and M Spigelman. 2004. Report on burials and Osteological remains Skeletal Survey. In Horvat Karkur ‘llit Dr Pau Figueras (ed) Ben Gurion University of the Desert Press Beer-Sheva.

3) Saqquara 2004 Egypt Skeletal Survey Tomb of Amenemheb Amenemone. The Chief Goldsmith with the Macquarie University Sydney Australia the Australian Center for Egyptology. Dr Boyo Ockinga. Skeletal survey.

In preparation

1) 1991-6. Beit Shean Israel Skeletal survey, with Institute of Archaeology Jerusalem Prof. Ami Mazar(in prep).

2) Saqquara Egypt Skeletal Survey Tomb of Inw-minw with the Macquarie University Sydney Australia the Australian Center for Egyptology. Prof. Naguib Kanawaty. Skeletal survey (in prep).

3) 1997 Tel Rehov Israel site report on Skeletal remains (in prep).

4) Lemma E., O. Zimhony, C.L. Greenblatt, V. Koltunov, K. Vernon, M.I. Zylber and M. Spigelman. Attempts to revive Mycobacterium tuberculosis from 300 year old human mummies (in prep).

Available Lectures

1) I give a series of 8-9 one hours tutorials on Hunan remains in archaeology- the focus is on Paleopathology and scientific investigation. All lectures are based on slides with explanations.

Lectures will include:

1. Introduction –introduction to skeleton, age at death, sex, stature. Basics of physical anthropology.
2. Concepts of disease and congenital diseases miscellaneous.
3. Cancer and metabolic diseases.
4. Trauma.
5. Arthritic diseases.
6. Infectious diseases.
7-8. Scientific research on skeletal remains and mummies particularly use of ancient DNA techniques.
9. National geographic and discobvery channel videos of my work with explanations.

2) A lecture on the shroud of Jerusalem.

3) “Mummies murder and mayhem” A general overview of some of the more interesting work I have done on skeletons and mummies.

4) Hungarian mummies project

5) Sudenese mummies project

6) TB in antiquity

7) Leprosy and co-infections.

8) Korean Mummy project